Migration and Mobility Dialogue Support Programme

#Irregular Migration #Trafficking in Human Beings #Legal and Labour Migration #Migration Dialogues #Return and Reintegration #Migration and Development

Support Project to the Migration Mobility Dialogue (MMD)

Migration is a global challenge, which can only be addressed through joint action. Africa and Europe are working together in a spirit of solidarity, partnership, and shared responsibility, striving to create a positive impact on both continents.
The Support Project to the Africa-EU Migration and Mobility Dialogue (MMD) is part of the Joint Africa-EU Strategy. Now in its second phase, the multi-faceted Project continues to support ICMPD-facilitated migration dialogues (Rabat Process, Khartoum Process, and the AU-EU Continent-to-Continent Migration and Mobility Dialogue), to follow up on the Joint Valletta Action Plan (JVAP), and to strengthen the role of the African diaspora via the Africa-Europe Diaspora Development Platform (ADEPT). The Project thereby adheres to the five domains of the JVAP: (i) development benefits of migration and addressing the root causes of irregular migration and forced displacement, (ii) legal migration and mobility, (iii) protection and asylum, (iv) prevention of and fight against irregular migration, migrant smuggling and trafficking in human beings, and (v) return, readmission and reintegration. 


  • increased orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people within Africa and between Africa and Europe;
  • improved governance of migration and mobility within Africa, and between Africa and Europe, based on a shared and common vision towards an integrated approach to migration and mobility;
  • a sustained dialogue on cooperation and collaboration on migration- and mobility related issues; and 
  • an effective framework established for consultation, coordination, and structured cooperation.


  • development and operationalisation of cooperation frameworks on migration;
  • establishment of a network of national focal and contact points to facilitate dialogues and joint action;
  • identification and exchange of good practices at national, regional and continental levels; and
  • delivery of tailored technical assistance to strengthen capacities of national, regional and continental stakeholders. 

The Rabat Process, Khartoum Process, Joint Valletta Action Plan (JVAP) Follow-up, the AU-EU Continent-to-Continent Migration and Mobility Dialogue (C2CMMD), as well as Africa-EU Diaspora Development Platform (ADEPT) all come together to form the MMD.

MMD Components

The Rabat Process is an intergovernmental migration dialogue, which brings together countries of origin, transit, and destination along the migration routes linking Central, West, and Northern Africa with Europe, with a view to addressing migration and development issues, guided by the principles of solidarity, partnership and shared responsibility. 

Objectives: to provide a framework for consultation, and coordination, which is focused on operationalisation; to address common challenges and opportunities arising from migration and mobility; to enable exchange, learning and development among the Rabat Process partner countries and organisations.

For more information, please visit the Rabat Process website.

The Khartoum Process is a platform for political cooperation amongst the countries along the migration route between the Horn of Africa and Europe. It is designed to assist participating states in tackling human trafficking and migrant smuggling through concrete actions in the spirit of partnership, shared responsibility, and cooperation. 

Objectives: to establish a continuous dialogue for enhanced cooperation on migration and mobility; to identify and support the implementation of concrete initiatives to address trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants; to give a new impetus to regional collaboration among partner countries.

For more information, please visit the Khartoum Process website.

At the 2015 Valletta Summit, African and European partners agreed upon concrete and operational measures to jointly address migration issues, while recognising its benefits. The framework of the agreement was attained through the adoption of a political declaration and a common action plan, known as the Joint Valletta Action Plan, or simply ‘JVAP’. 

The Khartoum and the Rabat Processes were mandated to follow up on the implementation of the JVAP, thereby making their respective participating states, and organisations, JVAP Partners. A regularly updated Database was established, compiling all projects and policies launched since November 2015 that relate to the five domains of the JVAP. A Data Visualisation Tool (DVT) connected to the Database supports the Partners with provision of up-to-date graphics and analysis, which contribute to the discussions of the respective Dialogues.

For more information, please visit the JVAP Portal.

C2CMMD builds on the strategic partnership between the African and European Unions to address migration issues in the spirit of partnership and shared responsibility, in full respect of international law. 
Adding value to, and complementing, the other dialogues, C2CMMD aims to provide a platform for consultation, coordination, and information exchange, and to encourage collaboration and cooperation for results-oriented joint actions on migration and mobility. C2CMMD operates on the principle of subsidiarity and in accordance with the national, regional and global ambitions and policies on migration and mobility. 

ADEPT is an international non-profit members' organisation based in Brussels, representing African diaspora organisations in Europe, which focus on supporting development initiatives in Africa. 

The platform seeks to empower the African diaspora by engaging African and European governments, as well as other international actors on development issues by: connecting them with diaspora actors; providing capacity  development  support  to  its members and to African national authorities, and  mobilising diaspora expertise to inform relevant international dialogues.

For more information, please visit the ADEPT website.

Algeria / Austria / Belgium / Benin / Bulgaria / Burkina Faso / Cabo Verde / Cameroon / Central African Republic / Chad / Congo / Croatia / Cyprus / Czechia / Denmark / Djibouti / Egypt / Eritrea / Estonia / Ethiopia / Equatorial Guinea / Finland / France / Gabon / Gambia / Ghana / Germany / Greece / Guinea / Guinea-Bissau / Hungary / Ireland / Italy / Kenya / Côte d'Ivoire / Latvia / Liberia / Libya / Lithuania / Luxembourg / Mali / Malta / Mauritania / Morocco / Netherlands / Niger / Nigeria / Norway / Poland / Portugal / Romania / Sao Tome and Principe / Senegal / Sierra Leone / Slovakia / Slovenia / Somalia / South Sudan / Spain / Sudan / Sweden / Switzerland / Togo / Tunisia / Uganda
Observer Countries
October 2015 to June 2023
European Commission
In addition to the participating and observer states, the following organisations and entities participate actively and on a regular basis in the various components of MMD:
European Commission (EC), European External Action Service (EEAS), African Union Commission (AUC), Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Council of the European Union (CoE), Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), International Organization for Migration (IOM), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), International Labour Organisation (ILO), African Institute for Remittances (AIR)
Implementing Agency

Senior Coordinator

Monica Zanette

Senior Coordinator

MMD Video