18 October 2016 is the 10th EU Anti-Trafficking Day. In a three-part-blog series, ICMPD analyses challenges and future priorities for the EU and its Member States in combating trafficking in human beings. In view of the forthcoming EU Anti-Trafficking Strategy, we're looking at current anti-trafficking efforts in the context of global migration trends and policies, asking the question of how current debates might shape anti-trafficking in the coming years.
Addressing the issue of trafficking in human beings is one of ICMPD's core competences for almost two decades. Within its structure, ICMPD has a dedicated Programme Unit called the Anti-Trafficking Programme. ICMPD's Anti-Trafficking Programme aims to support state and non-state stakeholders at the national and regional level by supporting the development of comprehensive anti-trafficking responses in accordance with international and European standards. The Programme has a team of resourceful, dedicated, and specialised anti trafficking experts who have been instrumental along the years in deploying various types of technical assistance expertise in different parts of the world based on needs expressed by countries, regional communities and donor community.
Geographically, the Anti-Trafficking Programme, which started its activities in South-Eastern Europe and in the EU, has gradually expanded to other areas of the world including the ICMPD’s priority regions (Africa, Central and South Asia, Europe and the Middle East) and Migration Dialogues (Budapest Process, Prague Process, MTM Dialogue, EUROMED Migration IV, Rabat Process and Khartoum Process). Thematically, the ICMPD’s activities on anti-trafficking cover three pillars of intervention: policy, research and capacity building. The Anti-Trafficking Programme focuses on the following fields of expertise:
At the Policy level, our core expertise is in supporting countries/regions in the development of:
- Anti-trafficking legal and institutional framework;
- Anti-trafficking strategies and action plans including mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation;
- National and transnational referral mechanisms to increase victim identification as well as improving access to justice and social inclusion for victims of trafficking;
- Anti-trafficking data collection and management.
We do so, based on specific methodology developed over the years and tested in different countries/regions, by applying the top-bottom (regional-country) approach in the intervention, which proved beneficial and provided positive results and sustainability. This approach anticipates identifying of the common characteristics/challenges in the targeted countries and developing unified guidelines for embedding the minimum regional standards in the anti-TIP response. As a result of this approach and by adapting the ICMPD developed Guidelines into national context, in the past two decades the following Guidelines and subsequent national/regional documents have been developed:
- ICMPD developed Guidelines:
Monitoring and Evaluation Handbook for National Action Plans against Trafficking in Human Beings (currently under revision)
The handbook is a practical tool that provides easy-to-follow guidelines on how to monitor, review, evaluate and report on the implementation of national action plans against trafficking in human beings.
Handbook on Anti-Trafficking Data Collection in South-Eastern Europe: Developing Regional Criteria – second edition
This Handbook is the second edition of the Handbook on data collection published in 2008. It contains an up-dated list of indicators for the collection of data on trafficking in human beings. It has also been up-dated in relation to other resources, initiatives and projects trafficking data collection in Europe.
Guidelines for the Development of a Transnational Referral Mechanism for Trafficked Persons in Europe: TRM-EU
The Guidelines are largely based on the TRM-SEE Guidelines, they have however been revised and extended to meet the needs of the countries participating in the TRM-EU project: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, in addition to Albania, Bulgaria, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and Romania. Indicators to be applied in the context of standard operating procedures have been included (e.g. identification; first assistance and protection; long term assistance and social inclusion; return and social inclusion; criminal and civil proceedings between countries of transit, destination and origin).
Guidelines for the Development of a Transnational Referral Mechanism for Trafficked Persons: South-Eastern Europe
Handbook on Anti-Trafficking Data Collection in South-Eastern Europe: Developing Regional Criteria
The handbook is a tool to support governmental agencies in the collection of concrete, reliable data on human trafficking. It contains a list of indicators for the collection of data on trafficking in human beings – both on the victim side and on the criminal justice side.
Guidelines for the Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive National Anti-Trafficking Response (currently under revision)
The Guidelines contain a comprehensive set of measures to be taken by anti-trafficking actors in order to counter human trafficking according to the four main areas where action is needed, namely prevention, support and protection of victims and victim-witnesses, investigation and prosecution of trafficking, and supporting framework.
To avail the implementation of tailor made capacity building activities, ICMPD Anti Trafficking Programme (ATP) has supported different stakeholders by developing a rich set of tools and training materials, such as:
- Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for single or multi-stakeholder Anti-Trafficking processes;
- Indicators for identification of victims of trafficking;
- Full-fledged training programmes tailor made to different audience (training curriculums, modules, training –of-trainers).
The aim is to equip various government institutions and civil society organisations with technical know-how contributing to building sustainable institutional responses, policy formulation to tackle trafficking in human beings in a comprehensive manner as well as building of skills of key stakeholders in order to respond to trafficking by identifying victims, protecting their rights and bringing the perpetrators to justice. ICMPD capacity building interventions have always been articulated following a logical needs assessment that enable to develop a clear demarcation of roles between various agencies and organisations but also a clear understanding of existing knowledge and expertise of the beneficiaries of the capacity building trainings in the countries where we operate.
ICMPD has been implementing anti trafficking programmes and projects in numerous countries, across different continents, working with a wide range of actors, spanning from criminal justice actors, National Anti-Trafficking task forces, labour inspectors, social workers, civil society organisations, Parliamentarians, media, to name a few, in order to build their capacity but also to construct an alliance towards reducing the incidence of trafficking in persons as well as to identify and support victims of trafficking. This strong engagement has led to the building of a solid evidence-based knowledge, tools and technical knowhow that can be illustrated by the initiatives listed below.
- Under the project Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings and Organised Crime (THB/IFS), ICMPD organised a series of capacity building training targeting key practitioners in Albania, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Moldova, Pakistan and Turkey as part of their efforts to combat transnational organised crime, particularly in relation to trafficking in human beings (THB).
- In Ghana, under the framework of the Migration EXpertise (MIEUX), ICMPD supported capacity building training of law enforcements, including the Ghana immigration services, police and Ministry of Gender on the identification, referral, and prevention of trafficking in human beings. A pool of trainers was identified and equipped with knowledge and technical know on how to better apprehend THB cases they may encounter on their day-to-day work.
- In Jordan, under the framework of the project Support to the Mobility Partnership between the European Union and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (JEMPAS) ICMPD has trained labour inspectors using the Standards Operating Procedures for identification and referral of victims of trafficking as well as the Training Curriculum for labour inspectors and tailored based indicators of trafficking in human beings developed by the ATP Programme under the project.
- In Brazil, ICMPD under the framework of the project ATENCAO Brasil: enhancing the capacity of the Brazilian government to tackle THB, has developed a Guide on assistance and referral of victims in trafficking in persons (PT) as well as a Guide on Anti-Trafficking in Persons – Law Enforcement (PT). The Guide on assistance and referral was designed to serve as a reference document to streamline local interventions in public policies pertaining to the context of each Brazilian State. The Guide for law enforcement was developed following an important revision of the anti-TIP legislation in in Brazil regarding TIP and is aimed to provide knowledge and technical know-how among practitioners to prevent, identify, investigate and prosecute cases of trafficking, as well as protection of victims.
- In the framework of the Council of Europe (CoE) project: Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, ICMPD Anti-Trafficking Programme provided specific expertise to train representatives from the media in North Macedonia as part of the efforts to improve the level of professionalism in reporting THB related stories. The media training was designed thanks to the ICMPD developed Media and Trafficking in Human Beings Guidelines (EN AL AR AZ BO MKD RO RU TU)
- Under the project “Sustaining Migration Management in Georgia (ENIGMMA 2), ICMPD carried out in Georgia a series of capacity building trainings for Georgian consular services on THB.
Analyses and Assessments
A predisposition for development of an effective policy and capacity building initiatives is that they are based on evidences and respond to the actual status-quo and needs of their targets. The Anti-Trafficking Programme collects and analyses facts in order to enrich its thematic expertise and to ensure the release of relevant and adequate products.
1. Thematic analysis – focus on specific topic, group or emerging situation.
2007, Listening to Victims: Experiences of identification, return and assistance in South-Eastern Europe
2. Assessment of anti-trafficking policies:
- Assessment of the overall anti-trafficking response (at national or regional level).
- Evaluation of national anti-trafficking strategies and action plans, monitoring and evaluation tools.
- Assessment of referal mechanisms for vicitms of trafficking (national, regional, transnaional). ATP has conducted assessments of the national referral systems of the countries of the Western Balkans, EU Member states, Albania, , Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Moldova.
- Gaps and needs assessments, stock-taking and baseline assessments.
Developing, implementing and monitoring of the anti-trafficking strategic response in the MARRI Participants. Assessment on the needs, gaps and good practices.
3. Training needs assessment and development of tailored training curriculums
The scale may vary from particular training group, particular professional group to national institution or regional organisation.
- Training Curriculum for Labour Inspectors on Trafficking in Human Beings in Jordan
- Manual for Management of Shelters and Assistance Centres for Victims of Trafficking - Azerbaijan
For more information on ICMPD’s Anti-Trafficking capacity building initiatives, please contact:
Ms. Melita Gruevska-Graham
Head of ICMPD Anti-Trafficking Programme
Our further engagements
The Anti-Trafficking Programme of ICMPD has been conducting empirical research on the phenomenon of human trafficking in dynamic mixed migration contexts and humanitarian crises since 2014, in order to increase, and enhance the accuracy of, the knowledge base on how trafficking affects people who migrate or seek refuge. The research focus was initially on the effects of the Syrian conflict and displacement on human trafficking in Syria and its neighbouring countries: Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq. This research resulted in a comprehensive study entitled Targeting Vulnerabilities: The Impact of the Syrian War and Refugee Situation on Trafficking in Persons, the first empirical, multi-country research study to assess the links between conflict, displacement and trafficking. Please follow the links below to download in English, Arabic, Turkish or Iraqi Kurdish:
Targeting Vulnerabilities: The Impact of the Syrian War and Refugee Situation on Trafficking in Persons (A Study of Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq)
In mid-2018, ICMPD published Trafficking Along Migration Routes, a research assessment of gaps, needs and challenges in the identification, referral, protection and rehabilitation of trafficked people who used migration routes to Europe, covering Greece, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Serbia, Austria, Germany, Sweden and Finland. The assessment also assessed risks of trafficking in the context of the Balkan route and in destination countries (Forin & Healy, 2018). Please follow the links below to download in English:
Trafficking along Migration Routes to Europe: Bridging the Gap between Migration, Asylum and Anti-Trafficking
Full Study: EN
Briefing Paper: EN
ICMPD then adapted the research methodology used for Targeting Vulnerabilities to carry out the Study The Strength to Carry On: Resilience and Vulnerability to Trafficking and Other Abuses among People Travelling along Migration Routes to Europe. The countries under study are situated along the main Balkan migration route: Greece (which is also the first country of arrival along the Eastern Mediterranean route), Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Serbia and Hungary. In addition, the research covered Germany, the main destination country for people travelling along these routes, and Italy, the first country of arrival along the Central Mediterranean route. Please follow the links below to download in English, Bulgarian, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Macedonian, or Serbian:
The Strength to Carry On: Resilience and Vulnerability to Trafficking and Other Abuses among People Travelling along Migration Routes to Europe
Full Study: EN
Together against human trafficking: National Anti-trafficking Coordinators from South-Eastern Europe meet on a regular basis
ICMPD is proud to act as the Secretariat for the Network of National Anti-trafficking Coordinators from South-Eastern Europe (SEE). This platform is was established in 2010 with the aim of exchanging expertise and further developing and improving transnational cooperation on countering human trafficking in the South-Eastern Europe region. The Network meets 1-2 times a year in support of this objective.
2012: Joint Declaration of the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinators of South-East European (SEE) countries on enhancing Transnational Referral Mechanisms (TRM) and Strengthening Cooperation in Cases of Human Trafficking
Past Meetings of the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinators
Since the inaugural meeting in Belgrade in 2011, there have been several other meetings of the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinators held in different cities around Europe and the Middle East. Details of all the meetings held so far can be found HERE
About the Network of National Anti-Trafficking Coordinators
As an outcome of the Ministerial Conference held in Brdo – Kranj on 20 October 2010, it was decided that meetings of the Network of National Anti-trafficking Coordinators from South-Eastern Europe (SEE) would be organised on a regular basis in the framework of the Brdo process, upon the initiative of the Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Slovenia. Considering the strong competence of ICMPD in the area of trafficking in human beings and its long-term cooperation with the countries of SEE, ICMPD was entrusted with the responsibility of serving as the Secretariat for this initiative.
Since 2011, ICMPD has supported the National Coordinators of SEE in facilitation of regular meetings serving as forums for sharing good practices, discussing the needs of these countries and identifying areas for potential cooperation in the future. The platform started out as a 'members only club' exclusively for practitioners in the region; however, over the years it has become an interactive dialogue that involves a pan-European network of experts and professionals, thus enabling the creation and exchange of good practices beyond the usual channels.
On the occasion of the 6th EU Anti-Trafficking Day (18 October 2012), the National Anti-trafficking Coordinators agreed upon a joint declaration, which outlines their priorities in combating trafficking in human beings and reflects the synergies between the EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings 2012–2016 and the progressive efforts made in SEE to tackle the issue. The full text of the joint declaration can be downloaded here.
On 16 March 2018, nine ministers of Interior from South-Eastern Europe (SEE) met at the Brdo Process Ministerial Meeting to adopt a joint-ministerial declaration on regional cooperation to combat trafficking in human beings. ICMPD, as the Secretariat of the Meetings of the Network of National Anti-trafficking Coordinators in SEE, supported participating states draft the declaration. As well as reaffirming commitment to protection of victims, prosecution of perpetrators and prevention of trafficking, the declaration commits adopting countries to establish formal compensation mechanisms for victims, acknowledge the importance of reducing demand for trafficked services, and to devote attention to the relevance of internet-based technologies to combat trafficking. The full text of the ministerial declaration can be downloaded here.
On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Network of Anti-Trafficking Coordinators of South-East Europe, Strategic Paper 2020-2024 was elaborated. The document takes further the achievements of Network’s first decade and sets the agenda for the next five years. The document was elaborated with the crucial input of all national anti-trafficking coordinators, and was endorsed by the ministers of interior of the Brdo Process member states at the Ministerial Meeting held on 4 March 2020. The full text of the Strategy Paper 2020 – 2024 can be downloaded here.
The Anti-Trafficking Programme takes part in initiatives and platforms coordinated by the ICMPD led Migration Dialogues, as well as to various international anti-trafficking platforms. In the last years, the involvement and amount of work deployed for such initiatives has grown considerably, due to the recognition of ICMPD Anti-Trafficking Programme as an international leading agency in the Anti-Trafficking domain.
Migration Dialogues and Global Programmes
In order to achieve further global outreach, the Anti-Trafficking Programme is actively seeking to provide thematic expertise into the platforms of the regional migration dialogues to which ICMPD acts as Secretariat - Budapest Process, Khartoum Process, Prague Process, and Rabat Process. The Programme exercise short and mid/long term assignments varying in duration and resources, e.g. stocktaking/assessment initiatives, capacity building and technical support. We cooperate closely with the Migration EU eXpertise (MIEUX+) and the Mobility Partnership Facility (MPF) to provide expertise on the topic of human trafficking.
Assessment of Anti-Trafficking Gaps, Needs and Transferable Practices in the ECOWAS Member States and Mauritania (December 2021)Developed upon request from the Rabat Process Secretariat, the report provides a comprehensive, evidence-based analysis of trends in Trafficking in Persons (TIP) and existing anti-trafficking structures, initiatives and achievements in the West Africa region. It identifies gaps and needs, while presenting a Toolbox of Transferrable Practices, so that Rabat Process Partners can build upon successes in a practical manner and avoid pitfalls encountered by existing anti-trafficking responses. The report can be downloaded here: EN FR
Other international and national anti-trafficking stakeholders recognise the Anti-Trafficking Programme as a trusted source of expertise and quality due to the delivered content and standards of work. The Programme maintains strong network of experts and long-time partners. Through the Programme’s work, ICMPD contributes to the international coordination of efforts against trafficking in human beings.
- In 2016, ICMPD became one of the few non-UN organisations invited to be a member of the Inter-Agency Coordination Group against Trafficking in Persons (ICAT)
- ICMPD is an active member of the OSCE Alliance Against Trafficking in Persons
- ICMPD supports the Alliance 8.7 initiative to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Targets related to trafficking in human beings. ICMPD regularly joins ILO Action Pledge by committing efforts towards achivement of SDG 8.7 and in paricular the eradication of child trafficking and child labour.
We also partner and combine efforts with:
- Delta 8.7 Knowledge Platform - Office of the UN Special Rapporteur for Trafficking in Persons - UNODC GloACT - UNHCR - IOM - OSCE/ODIHR - ILO - European Commission - Council of Europe - ECOWAS Commission - Council of the Baltic Sea States - Terre des hommes - La Strada International - British Red Cross - Global Slavery Index.
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|GUIA ASSISTÊNCIA E REFERENCIAMENTO DE VÍTIMAS DE TRÁFICO DE PESSOAS: Atualizado de acordo com a lei nº13.344/2016||2020||PT|
|GUIA ENFRENTAMENTO AO TRÁFICO DE PESSOAS: Aplicação do direito||2020||PT|
|The Strength to Carry On: Resilience and Vulnerability to Trafficking on Migration Routes to Europe - FULL STUDY||2019||EN|
|The Strength to Carry On: Resilience and Vulnerability to Trafficking on Migration Routes to Europe - BRIEFING PAPER||2019|
|The Strength to Carry On: Resilience and Vulnerability to Trafficking on Migration Routes to Europe - POLICY BRIEF||2019|
|Trafficking along Migration Routes to Europe: Bridging the Gap between Migration, Asylum and Anti-Trafficking - FULL STUDY||2018||EN|
|Trafficking along Migration Routes to Europe: Bridging the Gap between Migration, Asylum and Anti-Trafficking - BRIEFING PAPER||2018||EN|
|Assessment of the Implementation of the National Mechanism for Referral and Support of Trafficked Persons in Bulgaria||2017||EN|
|Media and Trafficking in Human Beings Guidelines||2017|
|Brief Guidance and Indicators for Identification of Victims of Trafficking in Boznia and Herzegovina||2017||EN BiH|
|Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings and Organised Crime – Phase 2 (THB/IFS/2)|
Assessment of the Referral System for Victims of Trafficking in the Republic of Moldova
Train the Trainers curriculum to identify and refer human trafficking cases
|How To Investigate THB: Training Manual for Law Enforcement Officers|
|Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings and Organised Crime – Phase 2 (THB/I FS/2): Manual for Management of Shelters and Assistance Centres for Victims of Trafficking, Azerbaijan||2017||EN AZE RU|
Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings and Organised Crime – Phase 2 (THB/I FS/2): Manual for Management of Shelters and Assistance Centers for Victims of Trafficking, Turkey
|Municípios de Fronteira: Mobilidade Transfronteiriça, Migração, Vulnerabilidades e Inserção Laboral||2016||PT|
|Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings and Organised Crime – Phase 2 (THB/IFS/2): Assessment of Referral Mechanisms for Victims of Trafficking in Bosnia and Herzegovina||2016||EN|
|Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings and Organised Crime – Phase 2 (THB/IFS/2): Overview of the Referral, Assistance and Protection Systems for Victims and Potential Victims of Trafficking in Pakistan||2016||EN|
|Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings and Organised Crime – Phase 2 (THB/IFS/2):Overview of the National Legislative and Institutional Framework for Assistance and Protection of Victims of Human Trafficking in Turkey||2016||EN|
|Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings and Organised Crime – Phase 2 (THB/IFS/2): National and Transnational Referral Mechanisms for Victims of Trafficking in Albania||2016||EN|
|THB Advanced Training for Criminal Police, Bosnia and Herzegovina||2016|
|THB Advanced Training for Junior Inspectors, Boznia and Herzegovina||2016|
|THB Basic Police Training, Boznia and Herzegovina||2016|
|National Referral Mechanism: Protecting and Supporting Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings in Sweden||2016||EN SE|
|Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings and Organised Crime – Phase 2 (THB/IFS/2): Assessment of the National Referral Mechanism for Victims of Trafficking in Azerbaijan||2015||EN|
|Targeting Vulnerabilities: The Impact of the Syrian War and Refugee Situation on Trafficking in Persons - FULL STUDY||2015||EN AR TK KR|
|Targeting Vulnerabilities: The Impact of the Syrian War and Refugee Situation on Trafficking in Persons - BRIEFING PAPER||2015||EN AR TK KR|
|Targeting Vulnerabilities: The Impact of the Syrian War and Refugee Situation on Trafficking in Persons - POLICY BRIEF||2015||EN AR TK KR|
|NECESSIDADES E OBSTÁCULOS PARA A INSERÇÃO LABORAL E A INTEGRAÇÃO SOCIAL DOS IMIGRANTES – ESTUDO DE CASO EM CIDADES DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL, DE SANTA CATARINA E NO MUNICÍPIO DE SÃO PAULO||2015||PT|
|ENAFRON Assessment of Trafficking in Persons in the Border Regions||2013||EN ES PT|
|Research Report: Current Anti-trafficking Response in Turkey and the Way Forward||2013||EN TK|
|Guia de Referência: Para a Rede de Enfrentamento ao Tráfico de Pessoas no Brasil||2013||PT|
|Stock-Taking Report: Trafficking in Human Beings in Lebanon||2013||EN AR|
|Training-of-Trainers Curriculum on Standard Operating Procedures for Identification and Referral of Trafficked Persons in Lebanon||2013||EN AR|
|Train-the-Trainer Curriculum on the Identification, Referral and Assistance of Trafficked Persons||2013||EN TK|
|Guia De Atuação No Enfrentamento Ao Tráfico De Pessoas No Brasil||2013||PT|
|Stepping Up the Fight against Trafficking for Labour Exploitation - Capacity Building for Combating Trafficking for Labour Exploitation||2013||EN|
|GUIA DE FORMAÇÃO DE FORMADORES PARA A REDE DE ENFRENTAMENTO AO TRÁFICO DE PESSOAS NO BRASIL||2013||PT|
|The Way Forward in Establishing Effective Transnational Referral Mechanisms: A Report Based on Experience in Cases of Human Trafficking in South-Eastern Europe||2012||EN|
|Overview of the European Union’s Priorities in the Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings||2011||EN|
|Transatlantic Journeys: An exploratory research on human trafficking from Brazil to Italy and Portugal||2011||EN|
|Trafficking in Human Beings in Croatia: An Assessment Focusing on Labour Exploitation||2010||EN|
|Monitoring and Evaluation Handbook for National Action Plans against Trafficking in Human Beings||2010||EN|
|Study on Post-Trafficking Experiences in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy and Portugal||2010||EN|
|Study on the Assessment of the Extent of Different Types of Trafficking in Human Beings in EU Countries||2010||EN|
|Guidelines for Development of Transnational Referral Mechanism for Trafficked Persons in South-East Europe: TRM-EU||2010||EN|
|Handbook on Anti-Trafficking Data Collection in South-Eastern Europe: Developing Regional Criteria - second edition||2010||EN|
|Cooperation Beyond Borders: Development of Transnational Referral Mechanisms for Trafficked Persons||2009||EN|
|Legislation and the Situation Concerning Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation in EU Member States||2009||EN|
|Guidelines for Development of Transnational Referral Mechanism for Trafficked Persons in Europe: TRM-EU||2009||EN|
|Labour Exploitation and Trafficking in Azerbaijan: An Exploratory Overview||2008||EN|
|Listening to Victims: Experiences of identification, return and assistance in South-Eastern Europe||2007|
|Guidelines for the Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive National Anti-Trafficking Response||2006||EN|
|Law Enforcement Manual to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings - Training Guide||2006||EN|
|Regional Standard for Anti-Trafficking Training for Judges and Prosecutors in SEE||2005||EN|
|Regional Standard for Anti-Trafficking Police Training in SEE||2005||EN|
|Anti-Trafficking Training Material for Judges and Prosecutors - Background Reader||2004||EN|
|Anti-Trafficking Training Material for Judges and Prosecutors - Curriculum||2004||EN|
|Anti-Trafficking Training Material for Judges and Prosecutors - Handbook||2004||EN|
|Anti-Trafficking Training Material for Frontline Law Enforcement Officers - Background Reader||2004||EN|
|Anti-Trafficking Training Material for Frontline Law Enforcement Officers - Training Guide||2004||EN|