17 February 2022, The Anti-Trafficking Programme of ICMPD presents the Non-paper “Beyond Joint Actions: Towards integrated anti-trafficking responses of European Union Member States and Western Balkans”. The document identifies avenues of collaboration between anti-trafficking stakeholders in the Western Balkans (WB) and the European Union (EU), including its institutions and agencies as well as its Member States (MS), with a view to enhancing the quality and effectiveness of interventions to combat trafficking in human beings (THB) across Europe.
Addressing the issue of trafficking in human beings is one of ICMPD's core competencies for almost two decades. Within its structure, ICMPD has a dedicated Programme Unit called the Anti-Trafficking Programme. ICMPD's Anti-Trafficking Programme aims to support state and non-state stakeholders at the national and regional level by supporting the development of comprehensive anti-trafficking responses in accordance with international and European standards. The Programme has a team of resourceful, dedicated, and specialised anti-trafficking experts who have been instrumental over the years in deploying various types of technical assistance expertise in different parts of the world based on needs expressed by countries, regional communities, and the donor community.
Geographically, the Anti-Trafficking Programme, which started its activities in South-Eastern Europe and in the EU, has gradually expanded to other areas of the world including the ICMPD’s priority regions (Africa, Central and South Asia, Europe and the Middle East) and Migration Dialogues (Budapest Process, Prague Process, MTM Dialogue, EUROMED Migration IV, Rabat Process and Khartoum Process). Thematically, the ICMPD’s activities on anti-trafficking cover three pillars of intervention: policy, research and capacity building. The Anti-Trafficking Programme focuses on the following fields of expertise:
At the Policy level, our core expertise is in supporting countries/regions in the development of:
- Anti-trafficking legal and institutional framework;
- Anti-trafficking strategies and action plans including mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation;
- National and transnational referral mechanisms to increase victim identification as well as improving access to justice and social inclusion for victims of trafficking;
- Anti-trafficking data collection and management.
We do so, based on a specific methodology developed over the years and tested in different countries/regions, by applying the top-bottom (regional-country) approach in the intervention, which proved beneficial and provided positive results and sustainability. This approach anticipates identifying the common characteristics/challenges in the targeted countries and developing unified guidelines for embedding the minimum regional standards in the anti-TIP response. As a result of this approach and by adapting the ICMPD developed Guidelines into the national context, in the past two decades the following Guidelines and subsequent national/regional documents have been developed:
Monitoring and Evaluation Handbook for National Action Plans against Trafficking in Human Beings (currently under revision)
The handbook is a practical tool that provides easy-to-follow guidelines on how to monitor, review, evaluate, and report on the implementation of national action plans against trafficking in human beings.
This Handbook is the second edition of the Handbook on data collection published in 2008. It contains an updated list of indicators for the collection of data on trafficking in human beings. It has also been updated in relation to other resources, initiatives, and projects trafficking data collection in Europe.
The Guidelines are largely based on the TRM-SEE Guidelines, they have however been revised and extended to meet the needs of the countries participating in the TRM-EU project: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, in addition to Albania, Bulgaria, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and Romania. Indicators to be applied in the context of standard operating procedures have been included (e.g. identification; first assistance and protection; long term assistance and social inclusion; return and social inclusion; criminal and civil proceedings between countries of transit, destination, and origin).
Divided into five chapters – identification crisis intervention care/first assistance; assistance and social inclusion; voluntary return, legal stay and resettlement; and criminal proceedings and compensation claims – the guidelines offer a set of standard operating procedures for each stage of the referral process and are meant to serve as a practical tool to implement a sustainable transnational referral mechanism in a given country.
The handbook is a tool to support governmental agencies in the collection of concrete, reliable data on human trafficking. It contains a list of indicators for the collection of data on trafficking in human beings – both on the victim side and on the criminal justice side.
Guidelines for the Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive National Anti-Trafficking Response (currently under revision)
The Guidelines contain a comprehensive set of measures to be taken by anti-trafficking actors in order to counter human trafficking according to the four main areas where the action is needed, namely prevention, support and protection of victims and victim-witnesses, investigation and prosecution of trafficking, and supporting framework.
To avail the implementation of tailor made capacity building activities, ICMPD Anti Trafficking Programme (ATP) has supported different stakeholders by developing a rich set of tools and training materials, such as:
- Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for single or multi-stakeholder Anti-Trafficking processes;
- Indicators for identification of victims of trafficking;
- Full-fledged training programmes tailor made to different audiences (training curriculums, modules, training-of-trainers).
The aim is to equip various government institutions and civil society organisations with technical know-how contributing to building sustainable institutional responses, policy formulation to tackle trafficking in human beings in a comprehensive manner as well as the development of skills of key stakeholders in order to respond to trafficking by identifying victims, protecting their rights and bringing the perpetrators to justice. ICMPD capacity building interventions have always been articulated following a logical needs assessment that enables the development of a clear demarcation of roles between various agencies and organisations but also a clear understanding of existing knowledge and expertise of the beneficiaries of the capacity building trainings in the countries where we operate.
ICMPD has been implementing anti-trafficking projects in numerous countries, across different continents, working with a wide range of actors, spanning from criminal justice actors, National Anti-Trafficking task forces, labour inspectors, social workers, civil society organisations, Parliamentarians, media, to name a few, in order to build their capacity but also to construct an alliance towards reducing the incidence of trafficking in persons as well as to identify and support victims of trafficking. This strong engagement has led to the building of solid evidence-based knowledge, tools, and technical know-how that can be illustrated by the initiatives listed below.
- Under the project Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings and Organised Crime (THB/IFS), ICMPD organised a series of capacity building training targeting key practitioners in Albania, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Moldova, Pakistan, and Turkey as part of their efforts to combat transnational organised crime, particularly in relation to trafficking in human beings (THB).
- In Ghana, under the framework of the Migration EXpertise (MIEUX), ICMPD supported capacity building training of law enforcement, including the Ghana immigration services, police, and Ministry of Gender on the identification, referral, and prevention of trafficking in human beings. A pool of trainers was identified and equipped with the knowledge and technical know on how to better apprehend THB cases they may encounter in their day-to-day work.
- In Jordan, under the framework of the project Support to the Mobility Partnership between the European Union and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (JEMPAS) ICMPD has trained labour inspectors using the Standards Operating Procedures for identification and referral of victims of trafficking as well as the Training Curriculum for Labour Inspectors on Trafficking in Human Beings and Indicators of Trafficking in Human Beings developed by the ATP Programme under the project.
- In Brazil, within the framework of the project ATENCAO Brasil: enhancing the capacity of the Brazilian government to tackle THB, has developed a Guidelines for Assistance and Referal of Victims of Human Trafficking as well as a Guidelines to Combat Human Trafficking: Applying the law. The Guidelines for assistance and referral was designed to serve as a reference document to streamline local interventions in public policies pertaining to the context of each Brazilian State. The second Guideline, intended for law enforcement, was developed following an important revision of the anti-TIP legislation in Brazil regarding TIP and is aimed to provide knowledge and technical know-how among practitioners to prevent, identify, investigate and prosecute cases of trafficking, as well as protection of victims.
- In the framework of the Council of Europe (CoE) project Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, ICMPD provided specific expertise to train representatives from the media in North Macedonia as part of the efforts to improve the level of professionalism in reporting on THB related stories. The media training was designed thanks to the ICMPD developed Media and Trafficking in Human Beings Guidelines ( AL AR AZ BS DA MK RO RU TR)
- Under the project “Sustaining Migration Management in Georgia (ENIGMMA 2), ICMPD carried out in Georgia a series of capacity building trainings for Georgian consular services on THB.
A predisposition for the development of effective policy and capacity building initiatives is that they are based on evidence and respond to the actual status-quo and needs of their targets. The Anti-Trafficking Programme collects and analyses facts in order to enrich its thematic expertise and to ensure the release of relevant and adequate products.
1. Thematic analysis – focus on a specific topic, group, or emerging situation
2. Assessment of anti-trafficking policies:
- Assessment of the overall anti-trafficking response (at national or regional level).
- Evaluation of national anti-trafficking strategies and action plans, monitoring, and evaluation tools.
- Assessment of referral mechanisms for victims of trafficking (national, regional, transnational). ATP has conducted assessments of the national referral systems of the countries of the Western Balkans, EU Member states, Albania, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Moldova.
- Gaps and needs assessments, stock-taking, and baseline assessments.
3. Training needs assessment and development of tailored training curriculums
The scale may vary from a particular training group, particular professional group to the national institution or regional organisation.
ICMPD is proud to act as the Secretariat of the Network of Anti-Trafficking Coordinators of South-East Europe (NATC SEE). This platform was established in 2010 with the aim of exchanging expertise and further developing and improving transnational cooperation on countering human trafficking in the South-East Europe region. The Network meets 1-2 times a year in support of this objective. All information regarding the NATC SEE, including key documents and pas meetings, can be found here.
- Targeting Vulnerabilities: The Impact of the Syrian War and Refugee Situation on Trafficking in Persons (A Study of Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq)
The Anti-Trafficking Programme of ICMPD has been conducting empirical research on the phenomenon of human trafficking in dynamic mixed migration contexts and humanitarian crises since 2014, in order to increase, and enhance the accuracy of, the knowledge base on how trafficking affects people who migrate or seek refuge. The research focus was initially on the effects of the Syrian conflict and displacement on human trafficking in Syria and its neighbouring countries: Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, and Iraq. This research resulted in a comprehensive study entitled Targeting Vulnerabilities: The Impact of the Syrian War and Refugee Situation on Trafficking in Persons, the first empirical, multi-country research study to assess the links between conflict, displacement and trafficking. Please follow the links below to view the documents in English, Arabic, Turkish or Iraqi Kurdish:
- Trafficking along Migration Routes to Europe: Bridging the Gap between Migration, Asylum and Anti-Trafficking
In mid-2018, ICMPD published Trafficking Along Migration Routes, a research assessment of gaps, needs, and challenges in the identification, referral, protection, and rehabilitation of trafficked people who used migration routes to Europe, covering Greece, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Serbia, Austria, Germany, Sweden, and Finland. The assessment also assessed the risks of trafficking in the context of the Balkan route and in destination countries (Forin & Healy, 2018). Please follow the links below to view the documents in English:
Full Study: EN
Briefing Paper: EN
- The Strength to Carry On: Resilience and Vulnerability to Trafficking and Other Abuses among People Travelling along Migration Routes to Europe
ICMPD then adapted the research methodology used for Targeting Vulnerabilities to carry out the Study The Strength to Carry On: Resilience and Vulnerability to Trafficking and Other Abuses among People Travelling along Migration Routes to Europe. The countries under study are situated along the main Balkan migration route: Greece (which is also the first country of arrival along the Eastern Mediterranean route), Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Serbia, and Hungary. In addition, the research covered Germany, the main destination country for people travelling along these routes, and Italy, the first country of arrival along the Central Mediterranean route. Please follow the links below to view the documents in English, Bulgarian, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Macedonian, or Serbian:
Full Study: EN
The Anti-Trafficking Programme takes part in initiatives and platforms coordinated by the ICMPD led Migration Dialogues, as well as to various international anti-trafficking platforms. In the last years, the involvement and amount of work deployed for such initiatives has grown considerably, due to the recognition of ICMPD's Anti-Trafficking Programme as an international leading agency in the Anti-Trafficking domain.
Migration Dialogues and Global Programmes
In order to achieve further global outreach, the Anti-Trafficking Programme is actively seeking to provide thematic expertise into the platforms of the regional migration dialogues to which ICMPD acts as Secretariat - Budapest Process, Khartoum Process, Prague Process, and Rabat Process. The Programme exercise short and mid/long term assignments varying in duration and resources, e.g. stocktaking/assessment initiatives, capacity building, and technical support. We cooperate closely with the Migration EU eXpertise (MIEUX+) and the Mobility Partnership Facility (MPF) to provide expertise on the topic of human trafficking.
Assessment of Anti-Trafficking Gaps, Needs, and Transferable Practices in the ECOWAS Member States and Mauritania (December 2021)Developed upon request from the Rabat Process Secretariat, the report provides a comprehensive, evidence-based analysis of trends in Trafficking in Persons (TIP) and existing anti-trafficking structures, initiatives, and achievements in the West Africa region. It identifies gaps and needs while presenting a Toolbox of Transferrable Practices so that Rabat Process Partners can build upon successes in a practical manner and avoid pitfalls encountered by existing anti-trafficking responses. The report can be downloaded here: EN FR
Other international and national anti-trafficking stakeholders recognise the Anti-Trafficking Programme as a trusted source of expertise and quality due to the delivered content and standards of work. The Programme maintains a strong network of experts and long-time partners. Through the Programme’s work, ICMPD contributes to the international coordination of efforts against trafficking in human beings.
- In 2016, ICMPD became one of the few non-UN organisations invited to be a member of the Inter-Agency Coordination Group against Trafficking in Persons (ICAT)
- ICMPD is an active member of the OSCE Alliance Against Trafficking in Persons
- ICMPD supports the Alliance 8.7 initiative to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Targets related to trafficking in human beings. ICMPD regularly joins ILO Action Pledge by committing efforts towards the achievement of SDG 8.7 and in particular the eradication of child trafficking and child labour.
- We also partner and combine efforts with Delta 8.7 Knowledge Platform, Office of the UN Special Rapporteur for Trafficking in Persons, UNODC, GloACT, UNHCR, IOM, OSCE/ODIHR, ILO, European Commission, Council of Europe, ECOWAS Commission, Council of the Baltic Sea States, Terre des hommes, La Strada International, British Red Cross, Global Slavery Index.
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Please select the preferred language version to view the document
|Assessment Report on the needs gaps and good practices - Developing, implementing and monitoring of the anti-trafficking strategic response in the MARRI Participants||2021||EN|
|A Practitioner’s Guide - Developing and Monitoring National Anti-Trafficking Response||2021|
|Guidelines for Assistance and Referal of Victims of Human Trafficking: Updated in accordance with Law No. 13,344/2016 - Guia assistência e referenciamento de vítimas de tráfico de pessoas: Atualizado de acordo com a lei nº13.344/2016||2020||PT|
|Guidelines to Combat Human Trafficking: Applying the law - Guia enfrentamento ao tráfico de pessoas: Aplicação do direito||2020|
|STRIVE Study - The Strength to Carry On - Resilience and Vulnerability to Trafficking and Other Abuses among People Travelling along Migration Routes to Europe||2019||EN|
|STRIVE Briefing Paper - The Strength to Carry On - Resilience and Vulnerability to Trafficking and Other Abuses among People Travelling along Migration Routes to Europe||2019|
|STRIVE Policy Brief - How to Prevent Human Trafficking among People Travelling along Migration Routes to Europe||2019|
|STRIVE Policy Brief - The Strength to Carry On: Resilience and Vulnerability to Trafficking on Migration Routes to Europe||2019|
|Prague Process Trainer's Manual: What is Trafficking in Human Beings?||2018||EN|
|Reintegration and Social Inclusion of Child Victims of Trafficking in Bulgaria||2018||EN|
|Reintegration of Victims of Trafficking in Bulgaria: supporting social inclusion and economic empowerment||2018||EN|
|TRAM Study - Trafficking along Migration Routes to Europe: Bridging the Gap between Migration, Asylum and Anti-Trafficking||2018||EN|
|TRAM Briefing Paper - Trafficking along Migration Routes to Europe: Bridging the Gap between Migration, Asylum and Anti-Trafficking||2018||EN|
|Assessment of the Implementation of the National Mechanism for Referral and Support of Trafficked Persons in Bulgaria||2018||EN|
|Training Curriculum for Labour Inspectors on Trafficking in Human Beings in Jordan||2018||EN AR|
|Indicators of Trafficking in Human Beings: For First Level Identification of Potential Victims in the Labour Market in Jordan||2018||EN AR|
|Media and Trafficking in Human Beings Guidelines||2017|
|Brief Guidance and Indicators for Identification of Victims of Trafficking in Bosnia and Herzegovina||2017||EN BS|
|Assessment of the Referral System for Victims of Trafficking in the Republic of Moldova||2017||EN|
Train the Trainers Curriculum to Identify and Refer Human Trafficking Cases
|Human Trafficking - How to Investigate it: Training Manual for Law Enforcement Officers||2017|
|Manual for Management of Shelters and Assistance Centres for Victims of Trafficking, Azerbaijan||2017||EN AZ RU|
Manual for Management of Shelters and Assistance Centers for Victims of Trafficking, Turkey
|Assessment of Referral Mechanisms for Victims of Trafficking in Bosnia and Herzegovina||2016||EN|
|Overview of the Referral, Assistance and Protection Systems for Victims and Potential Victims of Trafficking in Pakistan||2016||EN|
|Overview of the National Legislative and Institutional Framework for Assistance and Protection of Victims of Human Trafficking in Turkey||2016||EN|
|Manual for Advanced Training of Criminal Police in Bosnia and Herzegovina||2016|
|Manual for Advanced Training of Junior Inspectors in Bosnia and Herzegovina||2016||BS(Lat) BS(Cyr)|
|Manual for Basic Police Training in Bosnia and Herzegovina||2016||BS(Lat) BS(Cyr)|
|National Referral Mechanism: Protecting and Supporting Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings in Sweden||2016||EN SE|
|Border Municipalities: Cross-Border Mobility, Migration, Vulnerabilities and Labor Insertion (MT Brasil) - Municípios de Fronteira: Mobilidade Transfronteiriça, Migração, Vulnerabilidades e Inserção Laboral||2016||PT|
|Guide for Assistance of Migrants, Refugees, Victims of Trafficking in Persons and Returned Brazilians, in Vulnerable Situations and in Border Areas (MT Brasil) - Guia de Atendimento aos Migrantes, Refugiados, Vítimas de Tráfico de Pessoas e Brasileiros Retornados, em situação de vulnerabilidade e em áreas de fronteira||2016||PT|
|Practical Guide for Assistance of Migrants, Refugees, Victims of Trafficking in Persons and Returned Brazilians, in Vulnerable Situations and in Border Areas (MT Brasil) - Guia Prático de Atendimento aos Migrantes, Refugiados, Vítimas de Tráfico de Pessoas e Brasileiros Retornados, em situação de vulnerabilidade e em áreas de fronteira||2016||PT|
|Needs and Obstacles to the Labor Insertion and Social Integration of Immigrants: Case Study in the cities of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and the Municipality of São Paulo (MT Brasil) - Necessidades e Obstáculos para a Inserção Laboral e a Integração Social dos Imigrantes: Estudo de Caso em Cidades do Rio Grande do Sul, de Santa Catarina e no Município de São Paulo (MT Brasil)||2015||PT|
|Assessment of the National and Transnational Referral Mechanisms for Victims of Trafficking in Albania||2015||EN|
|Assessment of the National Referral Mechanism for Victims of Trafficking in Azerbaijan||2015||EN|
|Targeting Vulnerabilities: The Impact of the Syrian War and Refugee Situation on Trafficking in Persons - A Study of Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq||2015||EN AR TR KR|
|Targeting Vulnerabilities Briefing Paper: The Impact of the Syrian War and Refugee Situation on Trafficking in Persons - A Study of Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq||2015||EN AR TR KR|
|Targeting Vulnerabilities Policy Brief: How are the war in Syria and the refugee crisis affecting human trafficking?||2015||EN AR TR KR|
|ENAFRON Assessment of Trafficking in Persons in the Border Areas||2013||EN ES PT|
|Research Report: Current Anti-trafficking Response in Turkey and the Way Forward||2013||EN TR|
|Train the Trainers: Curriculum on the Identification, Referral and Assistance of Trafficked Persons||2013||EN TR|
|Trafficking in Human Beings in Lebanon - Stock-Taking Report||2013||EN AR|
|Training-of-Trainers Curriculum on Standard Operating Procedures for Identification and Referral of Trafficked Persons in Lebanon||2013||EN AR|
|Guidelines for Combating Trafficking in Persons in Brazil - Guia De Atuação No Enfrentamento Ao Tráfico De Pessoas No Brasil||2013||PT|
|Stepping Up the Fight against Trafficking for Labour Exploitation - Capacity Building for Combating Trafficking for Labour Exploitation||2013||EN|
|Training Guide for Trainers for the Network to Combat Trafficking in Persons in Brazil - Guia De Formação De Formadores Para A Rede De Enfrentamento Ao Tráfico De Pessoas No Brasil||2013||PT|
|Reference Guide for the Network to Combat Trafficking in Persons in Brazil - Guia de Referência: Para a Rede de Enfrentamento ao Tráfico de Pessoas no Brasil||2012||PT|
|The Way Forward in Establishing Transnational Referral Mechanisms: A Report Based on Experience in Cases of Human Trafficking in South-Eastern Europe||2012||EN|
|Overview of the European Union’s Priorities in the Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings||2011||EN|
|Transatlantic Journeys: An exploratory research on human trafficking from Brazil to Italy and Portugal||2011||EN|
|Trafficking in Human Beings in Croatia: An Assessment Focusing on Labour Exploitation||2010||EN|
|Monitoring and Evaluation Handbook for National Action Plans against Trafficking in Human Beings||2010||EN AZ KA|
|Study on Post-Trafficking Experiences in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy and Portugal||2010||EN PT HU CS|
|Study on the Assessment of the Extent of Different Types of Trafficking in Human Beings in EU Countries||2010||EN|
|Guidelines for the Development of a Transnational Referral Mechanism for Trafficked Persons in Europe: TRM-EU||2010||EN PT IT HU CS|
|Handbook on Anti-Trafficking Data Collection in South-Eastern Europe: Developing Regional Criteria - second edition||2010||EN|
|Cooperation Beyond Borders: Development of Transnational Referral Mechanisms for Trafficked Persons||2009||EN|
|Legislation and the Situation Concerning Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation in EU Member States||2009||EN|
|Guidelines for the Development of Transnational Referral Mechanism for Trafficked Persons in Europe: SEE||2009||EN|
|Anti-Trafficking Data Collection and Information Management in the European Union – a Handbook||2009||EN SK PT PL CS|
|Labour Exploitation and Trafficking in Azerbaijan: An Exploratory Overview||2008||EN|
|Listening to Victims Experiences of identification, return and assistance in South-Eastern Europe||2007||EN AL RU RO MK BS/HR/SR BG|
|Handbook on Anti-Trafficking Data Collection in South-Eastern Europe: Developing Regional Criteria||2007||EN|
|Guidelines for the Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive National Anti-Trafficking Response||2006||EN|
|Law Enforcement Manual to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings - Training Guide||2006||EN|
|Regional Standard for Anti-Trafficking Training for Judges and Prosecutors in SEE||2005||EN|
|Regional Standard for Anti-Trafficking Police Training in SEE||2005||EN|
|Anti-Trafficking Training Material for Judges and Prosecutors - Background Reader||2004||EN|
|Anti-Trafficking Training Material for Judges and Prosecutors - Curriculum - Training Guide||2004||EN|
|Anti-Trafficking Training Material for Judges and Prosecutors - Handbook||2004||EN|
|Anti-Trafficking Training Material for Frontline Law Enforcement Officers - Background Reader||2004||EN|
|ing Material for Frontline Law Enforcement Officers - Training Guide||2004||EN|